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Become a member and receive career-enhancing benefits

Our top priority is providing value to members. Your Member Services team is here to ensure you maximize your 鶹ýmember benefits, participate in College activities, and engage with your 鶹ýcolleagues. It's all here.

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For Patients

Brochure References

Safe Pain Control for Adults

  1. NIDA. Misuse of prescription drugs. How can prescription misuse be prevented? Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  2. Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, et al. Management of postoperative pain: A clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council. J Pain. 2016;17(2):131-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2015.12.008. Available at: . Accessed October 2, 2017.
  3. Gerbershagen, HJ. Pain intensity on the first day after surgery: a prospective cohort study comparing 179 surgical procedures. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(4).
  4. Dolin SJ, Cashman JN, Bland JM. Effectiveness of acute postoperative pain management – I: evidence from published data. Br J Anaesth. 2002;89(3):409–423.
  5. Munafo MR, Stevenson J. Anxiety and surgical recovery: reinterpreting the literature. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51(4):589–596.
  6. Gan, TJ. Poorly controlled postoperative pain: prevalence, consequences, and prevention. J of Pain Research. 2017;10:2287–2298.
  7. Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  8. World Health Organization. WHO’s cancer pain ladder for adults. Available at .
  9. Thompson M, Dunford E. Relaxation and mindfulness in pain: A review. Br J Pain. 2010;4(1):18-22.
  10. Lim YC, Yobas P, Chen HC. Efficacy of relaxation intervention on pain, self-efficacy, and stress-related variables in patients following total knee replacement surgery. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(4):888-896.
  11. Quinlan-Woodward J, Gode A, Dusek JA, et al. Assessing the impact of acupuncture on pain, nausea, anxiety, and coping in women undergoing a mastectomy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2016;43(6):725-732.
  12. Tedesco D, Gori D, Desai KR, et al. Drug-free interventions to reduce pain or opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Surg. 2017;152(10):e172872.
  13. American Massage Therapy Association. Position Statement. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  14. Acetaminophen PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  15. US Dept of Health and Human Services, FDA (CDER). Organ-specific warnings: Internal analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic drug products for over-the-counter human use — labeling for products that contain acetaminophen guidance for industry. November, 2015. Available at . Accessed January, 2018.
  16. Advil PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  17. Motrin PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  18. Naprosyn PI. Available at . Accessed September, 2018.
  19. Celebrex PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  20. Neurontin PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  21. Lyrica PI. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  22. Ultram ER PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  23. Norco PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  24. Vicodin PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  25. Dilaudid PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  26. Oxycontin PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  27. Percocet PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  28. Rudd RA, Seth P, David F, et al. . MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(5051):1445-1452. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm655051e1.
  29. Brummett C, Waljee J, Goesling J, et al. New persistent opioid use after minor and major surgical procedures in US adults. JAMA Surg. 2017;152(6):e170504. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2017.0504. Available at: . Accessed January, 2018.
  30. Alma A, Gomes T, Zheng H, Jamdani MM, Juurlink DN, Bell CM. Long-term analgesic use after low-risk surgery: a retrospective cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(5):425-430.
  31. Webster LR, Webster RM. Predicting aberrant behaviors in opioid-treated patients: Preliminary validation of the opioid risk tool. Pain Medicine. 2005;6(6):423-442.
  32. Shah A, Hayes CJ, Martin BC. Characteristics of initial prescription episodes and likelihood of long-term opioid use—United States, 2006–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66: 265–269.
  33. Derry S, Derry C, Moore RA. . Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013; doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010289.pub2.
  34. Mathiesen O, Dahl B, Thomsen BA, et al. A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(9):2089–2096.
  35. Sakamoto B, Keiser S, Meldrum R, et al. . JAMA Surgery. 2016; doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3474.
  36. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Disposal of unused medicines: What you should know. Available at: . Accessed January, 2018.
  37. Han B, Compton WM, Blanco C, et al. Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Use Disorders in U.S. Adults: 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Ann Int Med. 2017;167(5):293-301.
  38. Jones C, Paulozzi LJ, Mack KA. Sources of prescription opioid pain relievers by frequency of past- year non-medical use. JAMA Int Med. 2014;174(5):802-803.
  39. NIDA. Misuse of prescription drugs. Summary. Available at . Accessed April, 2018.
  40. CDC. Opioid overdose. FAQ. Will I get addicted to opioids? Available at . Accessed April, 2018.

Safe Pain Control for Children and Teens

  1. NIDA. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances. July 2013. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  2. Merkel SI, Voepel-Lewis T, Shayevitz JR, Malviya S. The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatr Nurs. 1997;23(3):293-7.
  3. Poonai N, Datoo N, Ali S, et al. . CMAJ. 2017; 189(40): E1252–E1258.
  4. Avansino, JR, et al. A paradigm shift to balance safety and quality in pediatric pain management. Pediatrics, 2013:2012-1378.
  5. Harriet Lane Handbook. Acetaminophen. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  6. FDA. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  7. Children’s Advil Suspension. Available at . Accessed April 2, 2019
  8. FDA. Motrin (ibuprofen) Suspension 100mg/5ml. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  9. Motrin. Warnings. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  10. KidsHealth for Nemours. Giving Opioid Prescription Pain Medicine: What Parents Need to Know. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  11. Norco PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  12. Vicodin PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  13. Dilaudid PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  14. Oxycontin PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  15. Percocet PI. Available at . Accessed March, 2018.
  16. Jenco M for AAP News. Do not use codeine, tramadol in children: FDA. April 20, 2017. Available at . Accessed April 1, 2019.
  17. Harstad E, Levy S, Committee on Substance Abuse. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Abuse. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):e293-e301. Available at
  18. Schepis TS, Krishnan-Sarin S. Characterizing adolescent prescription misusers: a population-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(7):745-754.
  19. Han B, Compton WM, Blanco C, et al. Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Use Disorders in U.S. Adults: 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Ann Int Med. 2017;167(5):293-301.
  20. Jones C, Paulozzi LJ, Mack KA. Sources of prescription opioid pain relievers by frequency of past- year non-medical use. JAMA Int Med. 2014;174(5):802-803.
  21. Harbaugh CM, Lee JS, Hu HM, et al. Persistent Opioid Use Among Pediatric Patients After Surgery. Pediatrics. 2018;141(1). Available at